Capacity, Capability and Emergency Management Plan
The COVID-19 pandemic has stressed the ability of healthcare facilities to provide an effective and coordinated response to this complex incident. The mass disruption of public health and medical services has highlighted the need for cohesive strategies that focus on management systems for major public health and medical response.
What is Medical Surge?
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Servicesi, “Medical surge describes the ability to provide adequateii medical evaluation and care during events that exceed the limits of the normal medical infrastructure of an affected community. It encompasses the ability of HCOs to survive a hazard impact and maintain or rapidly recover operations that were compromised (a concept known as medical system resiliency).”
What is the difference between Medical Surge Capacity and Capability?
Medical Surge Capacity is the ability to evaluate and care for an increased volume of patients, overly exceeding normal operating capacity. This concept reaches further than direct patient care into laboratory studies or epidemiological investigations. The focus is in identifying numbers of hospital beds, personnel, pharmaceuticals, supplies, and equipment.
The following need to be examined:
• medical need
• the resources to address the need in a timely manner
• the movement of the resources expeditiously to locations of patient need (as applicable)
• the management and support of the resources to their absolute maximum capacity
Medical Surge Capability is the ability to manage patients requiring unusual or very specialized medical evaluation and care. Surge requirements span the range of specialized medical services (expertise, information, procedures, equipment, or personnel) that are not normally available at the location where they are needed (e.g., pediatric care provided at non-pediatric facilities).
What is an Emergency Management Program?
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services3, “Emergency management describes the science of managing complex systems and multidisciplinary personnel to address extreme events, across all hazards, and through the phases of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.”
• Mitigation – reduce or eliminate occurrence or impact (prior to impact)
• Preparedness – build organizational resiliency, capacity and capabilities
• Response – actions taken to address impact
• Recovery – restoration after incident
What are the Demands encountered during an Incident Response?
During the first stages of incident response, the efforts are concentrated on demands that are generated by the hazard. For example, during COVID-19 the hazard generated demands included the need to evaluate and treat victims as well as control the spread of disease. At the same time, the response itself generated demands. The response generated demands included the need to coordinate disparate resources, to process widely dispersed data into accurate epidemiological information, to coordinate the public message, and to protect healthcare workers. 4 Frequently, the focus on the Hazard Generated Demands causes the luck of attention on the Response Generated Demands. The oversight of Response Generated Demands becomes detrimental to the effectiveness of the overall response. A successful response should assess and anticipate Response Generated Demands and address them at the same time as Hazard Generated Demands.
Figure generated from information on PHE.gov
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Reference and Resource Links
1 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2019). Medical Surge Capacity and Capability Handbook. [online] Phe.gov. Available at: https://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/planning/mscc/handbook/chapter1/Pages/whatismedical surge.aspx
[Accessed 23 Apr. 2020].
2 Throughout this document, the term adequate implies a system, process, procedure, or quantity that will achieve a defined response objective.
3 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2019). Medical Surge Capacity and Capability Handbook. [online] Phe.gov. Available at: https://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/planning/mscc/handbook/Pages/appendixc.aspx
[Accessed 23 Apr. 2020].
4 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2019). Medical Surge Capacity and Capability Handbook. [online] Phe.gov. Available at: https://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/planning/mscc/handbook/chapter1/Pages/emergencyma nagement.aspx
[Accessed 23 Apr. 2020].